The history of Gujrat is being with mainly old Hindu civilization and the legends of the Hindu mythology. Raja Jay Dharat was the first who ruled Gujrat. After his death there were several Rajas who ruled Gujrat. One of them was Raja Bachan Lal who built "Ude-Nagri" ( which means the city of greeneries and pleasant smells). He married with Rani Gojran. After his death, Rani Gojran become the ruler and she renamed this place as "Gujar Nagar" which y the time, has now become the Gujrat. However, whetever, is said above are all the hindu storues. The main history of Gujrat originates from the days of Alexander, The Great, capturing after Egypt, Palestine, syira, and Babal, reached the territories of south west regions of them India (Now Pakistan Areas) and conqured those top. He crossed the Jehlum River in the night and defeated Raja Poras in a historical battle. After Alexander's death several other alines have also attacked and ruled over Gujrat. After some times Hindus again recaptured their areas.
During Mehmood Gazanvi region India was conquered by Muslims, and Ayub Malik was made Governor of Lahore and also the ruler of Gujrat and Punjab. At the time of Moughals these areas were included in Moughal Empire. I 1580, when great Moughal Emperor Akbar-e-Azam was passing through Gujrat he saw the worseing condition of Gujrat and felt pity, So he ordered to reconstruct the city. In those days there were two sects of people, Jats and Gujars, living in the Gujrat. The Jats did not care for the city but Gujars agree with Akbar proposal and collected an amount of one and half Lac Rupees. The city of Gujrat was constructed with its all dignity. It remained under Muslim rule till Aurang Zeb Alamgir. After the death of Alamgir the Mughals began to lose their grip and Punjab was divided among sikhs.
Gujrat is the second important district of Gujranwala. Gujrat, situated beside the grand trunk road and main Railway track is directly connected with the major cities like provencial and central metropolises of the country.
The river Jehlum on its north and river Chanab on the southren-eastren side, both separated this city from the districts of Sialkot and Gujranwala and because of being amongst these two rivers, it is resplendently fertile and the agriculture has always been acommon vocation of its inhabitants. As an industrial hub, the whole city is dotted with heavy manufacturing factories, spread all over the tract, where a lot of people perform the blue collor jobs. These people are probably very laborious, Punjabi, while Urdu and English languages are also spoken.
The man of valour, Major Aziz Bhatti Shaheed (Nishan-e-Haider) and other various patriots, too, belonged to the same region.
The region is very rapidly progressing in the industrial scope and almost two hundred and fifty fan manufacturies have been installed here. Else these, the glass and show manufacturing factories are also in run.
The cotton wheat, Sugarcane and besides these other various types of fruits are the major products of this region.
Moveover, Gujrat is famous for its beautiful and artistic handicrafts, Flower pots, "Changairian" made by leaves of palm and date trees, cotton mates, "Dhusse" and wollen shawls are famous and very much popular throughout the country and abroad.
Gujrat has a unique status throughout the Punjab due to some of its manufacturing capabilities and productions. Jalalpur is a large town of Gujrat, where several small and large textile industrial unit have been established. There are many other industrial units and factories engaged in manufacturing of electrical goods (Fan), Electric Motors, Earthen Utensils, Shoes, Rubber Tyre Tube, Sanitary Ware ,Rice Cleaning Mills and Furniture. The high quality furniture made here have been used in National and Provincial Assemblies..
The story of emergence of electric fan manufacturing industry in Pakistan is one of those heroic efforts made by a few enterprising individuals who. Starting with nothing in early 1940s struggled against all odds and turned this concern into a most efficient industry in Pakistan.
This is an industry on which all Pakistanis can rightly be proud of. It dose not owe its success to any foreign collaboration or any from the Government, but only to its own people whose constant research for maintaining good quality and devising new methods and techniques of production have now resulted in a product which we can rightfully claim as among the best in the world.
There are now over five hundred fan manufacturing units operating in Gujrat, Gujranwala, Lahore and a few other cities. Except for a few, the rest falls into the category of cottage industry. These small units from the real backbone of this industry. They provide employment to a large number of people and all put together account of more than 90 percent of the domestic market.
In this region the history of fan manufacturing in not very ancient, however, since last five decades, work has been done for its prosperity. The last two decades have been very obvious in the run of development.
The earth is man;s first love and their relationship is as old as the origin of man. Hence,it is no wonder if the man found his expression and aspiration through earth. The entire human history from savage-hood to the modren times,depicts fulfilment of day to-day necessities through earthern materialism while human inculcation of aesthetics sense addedits beauty, delicay and technical improvements in every field relating to the products made of earth.
So the recorded history is replete with this improvement. TheGreeks developed the initial stages of ceramics and the Egyptians discovered various contributory stones and soils thousands of years ago. T old civilizations living besides river namely the Euphrates and the Nile not only manufactured utensils and wares but also utilized earth to defend themselves from the hardships of climate. Gradually the use of fire and ovens added new dimensonis to the art of newly developed field of "Pottery". The usage of china clay in Egypt is reported as back as 12th century.
The Muslims conquered the world but without damaging the beautiful useful aspects of the civilizations that came in their way. In fact, they not only encouraged the science and art, but also added a great deal to it. They developed new techniques and added new colours to the ceramics. The manufacture of ceramic wares was carried out in Spain during the time of the Muslims and the Hispano & Morisco golden pottery became famous all over the world during the 14th century.
Pakistan inherited a well-groomed tradation in ceramics in spain during the 1th &11th century were manufactured adopting eastern tradition.Hence there is no wonder if pakistan has succeeded to produce entrepreneurs who have to establish an infrastructure conducive to the development of ceramics industry.
Before discussing about the development of ceramics in Pakistan, it may be of interest understand the meaning of "ceramics"in this growing industrilized world . "Ceramics"means articles and objects made of clay with definite/permanent shape and fired at high temperatures. Ceriously enough clay is the only one and the unique meterial which when moistened with a suitable quantity of water, develops "PLASTICITY"which helps in manufacturing unlimited number of objects in various shapes and sizes. Clay when it is in a plastic stage can be moulded into any design and shape, on drying it becomes hard and after firing turns like hard stone. In plastic condition clay particles are surrounded by thin water layer and on firing the particles tend to come closer to each other due to evaporation of water and then a point reaches when no further closeness amongst the particles take place , giving it two qualities- hardness and vitrification.
This process of manufacturing is being practiced since ages. The Greeks were the first to use it and in relatively modern times, Toledo, Murcia, Almeria became famous in this art.
In sub-continent, Ceramics were such as pottery and tiles with motifs besides being decorative and functional also depict our cultural heritage. For centuries ceramics as a form of craft, was passed on from on generation to the other in our country, just stopping short of becoming a full fledged industory. Blue pottery of Hala and Multan ,for example, is dated back to the emergence of Muslim civilization in these regions. Motifs avd figures from old historical forts, tombs, gardens and other buildings provide a tender touch of Muslim culture.
Attempts are now being made to revive our old traditions and establish ceramics industry on sound footings. The range of products is being diversified to include utility Ceramics wares and decorative art products with designs and shapes based on our traditional styles.
The modern development in designs being extended by the National Collage of Arts, Institute of ceramics, Gujrat and institute of pottery Dew. Shahdara , Lahore of punjab small industries corporation , Peshawar pottery, Peshawar and a small unit at karachi, The diversification of products and production of utility ceramics wares have been undertaken by organization like Pakpore Ceramics (Lala Musa), Regal China (Gujranwala), Lone china(Gujranwala), Dadabhoy(Karachi), and in the fields of Tiles, Fagtories like Forniter Ceramics( Peshawar), Swat Ceramics (Naushera), EMCO Tiles, Sheikhupura Road, (Lahore), Shabir Tiles and National tiles(Karachi) have taken lead. In the traditional pottery and blue pottery, Institute of blue pottery , Institute of blue pottery, PSIC, Multan has played its role to revive this type of wares on modern lines.
The Ceramics industry at present is producing three major types of products i. e. Earthenware, Stone ware and Porcelain. The Earthen ware industry whose total production capacity is about 75,000tons per years mainly located in gujrat, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Chakwal, Lala Musa and around Lahore, Gujrat and Gujranwala have long historical links with this industry(SOHNI of the legendof Sohni-Mahewal belonged to a pottery maker clay of Gujrat) and the people of the area feel pride in having traditions of excellence in this field. Earthen wares in the past were made using red clay which is now gradually being replaced with white burning clay.
The earth crest between Rivers Jhelum and Chenab has plasticity and the production of red cley wares depends mainly on plasticity of cley. As the cley comes from the upper hilly parts of the country in southern parts with river water its plasticity increases, hence potters residing in Jammu area were forced to settle in plains at Gujrat.
A number of ceramic units were lately established at Karachi, Islamamabad, Lala Musa, Peshawar, Muridke, and Saidu Sharif.
The name of Gujrat is synonymous with pottery due to its geographical location at the banks of river Chenab, hence the establishment of the institute of Ceramics at gujratis an acknowledgement of this historic fact.
In subcontinent, during Mughal reign the muslim brought this art and due to their creative nature, the art of calligraphy flourished. The craving on wood and historical building represent their artistic taste. They revolutionizedthis at so nicely that today their work in the field of craving wood seems to be miracle.
After 1947, when Pakistan came into being, this art changes into profession and furniture industry established. The furniture industry of Gujrat is one of the proof of the largest industry of Pakistan due to its export figures.